Risk Factors Affecting Ground Improvement Work in the Gulf Corporation Council Countries

Bashar Tarawneh1, *, Khaled Al Ajmi2
1 Civil Engineering Department, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan
2 Construction Training Institute, The Public Authority for Applied Education and Training, Adailiyah, Kuwait

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© 2020 Tarawneh & Al Ajmi

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at Civil Engineering Department, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan; Tel: +962-79-754-9696; E-mail:



This research aims to identify the risk factors related to ground improvement projects in the Gulf Corporation Council Countries (GCC).


Investigating and identifying those factors are essential to avoid schedule delay, cost overruns, diminished quality, and failure to achieve the project design requirements.


A questionnaire was used to prioritize the possible risk factors that influence the ground improvement projects in the GCC.


Data were collected using a questionnaire completed by 120 respondents who work in the ground improvement industry in the GCC, including geotechnical engineers, technical managers, operation managers, project engineers, and project managers. Participants were asked three questions for each risk factor. Questions were about the impact, probability, and detection of the risk factor. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Responses' Score (R.S.), and Risk Priority Number (RPN).


Five risk factors were included in the questionnaire, namely, site investigation, ground improvement technique, environmental conditions, ground improvement design, and ground improvement performance criteria. This paper also presents detailed recommendations to mitigate each risk factor.

Keywords: Ground improvement, Risk assessment, GCC, Risk factors, Desert sand, Site, Investigation.