An Appraisal of Compressive Strength of Concrete Incorporated with Chemically Different Fly Ashes

Atsushi Suzuki1, *, Dinil Pushpalal2, Hiroo Kashima3
1 Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
2 Graduate School of International Cultural Studies, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
3 Central Research Institute, Shin-Etsu Industry Co. Ltd., Saitama, Japan

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© 2020 Suzuki et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan; Tel: +81-22-795-7876; E-mail:



Generally, the compressive strength of fly ash concrete differs depending on the properties of fly ash. This strength difference causes difficulties for concrete engineers to guarantee the strength of supplied concrete.


This research firstly carried out the compressive strength tests on the concrete incorporated with fly ash possessing various chemical composition, which are high and low calcium fly ashes. The linear and nonlinear regression analyses were adopted to build the strength prediction model.


The chemical and physical properties of procured fly ash with high and low calcium contents have been quantified. Specifically, the compressive strength of concrete with high calcium fly ash demonstrates a strong correlation with calcium content, rather than physical properties such as the surface area and loss of ignition. Therefore, the compressive strength on 28th day can be assessed by a simple formula, taking CaO content of fly ash as an independent variable. In further, the strength on an arbitrary day can be predicted based on the 28th day strength and the replacement rate of fly ash.


The two-step framework proposed in this research enables concrete engineers to evaluate the compressive strength of fly ash concrete with an error rate of less than 30%, within the applicable range addressed in this research.

Keywords: High calcium fly ash, Compressive strength, Prediction model, Chemical composition, CaO, Coal.