Mechanical Properties of Mortar with Anadara Granosa Waste as Partial Sand Replacement

Hanis Nadiah Ruslan1, Khairunisa Muthusamy1, *, Mohd Faizal Md Jaafar1, Nur Azzimah Zamri2, Ramadhansyah Putra Jaya1
1 Faculty of Civil Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Persiaran Tun Khalil Yaakob, 26300, Kuantan, Malaysia
2 Faculty of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA Pahang, 26400, Bandar Tun Abdul Razak, Jengka, Malaysia

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© 2023 Ruslan et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Faculty of Civil Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Persiaran Tun Khalil Yaakob, 26300 Kuantan, Malaysia; E-mail:



In order to create a cleaner and more sustainable environment, cockle shell waste created from the local fisheries trade is used to produce construction materials, which meet the needs of a developing sustainable construction sector. The use of cockle shell waste as construction materials can help both the environment and the community. Though, the use of this waste as a partial replacement for fine aggregate (sand) in mortar has received little attention.


the current study aims to investigate the influence of Anadara granosa (cockle shell) as a fine aggregate substitute on the mechanical properties of mortar namely compressive strength, flexural strength, and dynamic modulus elasticity.


In this study, the cockle shell is crushed to fine particles and then integrated as fine aggregate replacement in various ratios of 10, 20, 30, and 40%.


The result indicated that integrating 10% crushed cockle shell into mortar enhances its compressive strength, flexural strength, and modulus elasticity when compared to the control mortar.


Conclusively, success in utilizing cockle shells as sand in mortar can help to reduce environmental problems and produce sustainable construction material.

Keywords: Fine aggregate, Anadara granosa, Mortar, Mechanical, Properties, Ustainable material.