Performance Improvement of Hot Mix Asphalt and Warm Mix Asphalt using RAP and Evotherm Additive

Ivan Imanuel1, *, Bambang Sugeng Subagio1
1 Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung 40132, Indonesia

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© 2023 Imanuel and Subagio

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung 40132, Indonesia; Email:



The application of warm mix asphalt (WMA) technology has challenges related to permanent deformation, while the use of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) tends to shorten the fatigue life of the pavement. RAP is known to improve the mixture’s resistance to permanent deformation, thus the combination of RAP and WMA is mutually beneficial.


The main purpose of this research is to measure the stiffness, permanent deformation, and fatigue performance of WMA which was added with RAP and Evotherm.


The research conducted laboratory experiments of asphalt mixtures using various contents of reclaimed asphalt, Evotherm additive, and mixing temperatures. The tests include penetration and viscosity tests of asphalt binder, along with mechanical properties of asphalt mixture, such as resilient modulus, fatigue life at 20°C, and permanent deformation test at 60°C.


The results of the resilient modulus test with UMATTA at three temperatures show an increase in WMA stiffness with the addition of RAP. The results of the permanent deformation test using the Hamburg Wheel Tracking Device show that RAP added with Evotherm improved the resistance of WMA to permanent deformation.


The results of the fatigue test using Beam Fatigue Apparatus show that WMA added with 30% RAP had the longest fatigue life. The main finding in this research is that the WMA-RAP mixture has good performance related to stiffness, permanent deformation, and fatigue. This research also concludes that Evotherm can be used as a rejuvenating agent with 30% RAP used in WMA.

Keywords: Warm mix asphalt, Evotherm, Reclaimed asphalt pavement, Resilient modulus, Hamburg wheel tracking device, Beam fatigue apparatus.