The Feasibility and Effectiveness of using Bragg Breakwaters in the Shoreline Wave Climate for East Taiwan Ocean Energy

Chih-Chung Wen1, Tsung-Lin Lee*, 2, Chien-Lin Chen3, Yong-Jun Lin4
1 Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, Hungkuang University, Taichung 433, ROC Taiwan
2 Department of Interior Design, Nan Jeon Institute of Technology, Tainan 737, ROC Taiwan
3 Department of Marine Environmental Informatics, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 202, ROC Taiwan
4 Center for Weather Climate and Disaster Research, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, ROC Taiwan

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© 2013 Wen et al;

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Interior Design, Nan Jeon Institute of Technology, Tainan 737, Taiwan, ROC; Tel: +886-6-6523111 ext 6203; Fax: +886-6-6533821; E-mail:


The purpose of this paper is to test the feasibility and affectivity of Bragg breakwaters on increasing wave energy by using wave conditions. The Bragg reflection phenomena will depend on the wavelength of surface waves and the spacing of the submerged breakwater. The spacing of the submerged breakwater is the most important parameter for designing a series of submerged breakwaters. In this paper, the Hybrid Mild-Slope Equation model (HMSE) was applied to calculate the phenomena of Bragg reflection and the feasibility and affectivity of ocean power. The data comprising wave records from three harbors in Taiwan during 1999 to 2004 were used to illustrate performance of this model. The effect and feasibility of Bragg breakwaters were also assessed in the practical cases. From the calculated results, the average of the ocean power comes to be 2.54 times more than the original condition in Keelung Harbor, 2.5 times in Su-Ao Harbor and 2.4 times in Hualien Harbor.

Keywords: Wave energy, Bragg reflection and Hybrid Mild-Slope Equation model.