Durability Phenomena of Bitumen and Bituminous Pavement Materials

Abdullahi Ali Mohamed1, Soon Yee Wong1, Lau Teck Leong1, Mohd Ahmadullah Farooqi2, Ramadhansyah Putra Jaya3, *, Zaid Hazim Al-Saffar4, Haryati Yaacob5
1 Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia, 43500 Selangor, Malaysia
2 Department of Building Engineering, College of Architecture and Planning, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, 34212 Dammam, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Kuantan, Malaysia
4 Department of Building and Construction Engineering, Technical College of Mosul, Northern Technical University, 41002 Mosul, Iraq
5 School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Bahru , Malaysia

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© 2021 Mohamed et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Kuantan, Malaysia; E-mail:


The durability of asphaltic mixtures, in addition to traffic loading, is greatly influenced by the extremes environmental parameters. For instance, at higher temperatures, bitumen becomes soft, thereby reducing the stiffness of asphalt mixtures and making them vulnerable to rutting. On the other hand, at lower temperatures, the stiffness of bitumen is increased, reducing the flexibility of asphaltic concrete and rendering it prone to fatigue failure. Therefore, this evaluation is an extensive research study on the durability of binder and asphalt mixture with their phenomena. Besides that, this paper intends to delve into the various testing methods and measures adopted to evaluate aging and slowing it down. It also presents a critical review of these methods and proposes a future course of action to better address aging issues. According to the evaluation, the behavior of bitumen on the basis of its source varies; when it is mixed with bitumen modifiers, aggregates, and other filler materials, its behavior becomes even more complex. Hence the understanding of the phenomenon of aging is important and the significance cannot be overemphasized. Extensive research work has been done over the last seven decades to evolve the understanding of short- and long-term aging and to improve the durability of asphaltic mixtures. Generally, the aging of bitumen under the influence of both environment and traffic is irreversible as well as inevitable. Apart from entailing hefty maintenance budgets, it remains a challenge to the researchers to slow down aging.

Keywords: Bitumen aging, Micro-CT of bitumen, Asphalt mixture aging, Modified bitumen, Steric hardening, Durability of asphaltic mixtures.